Currently the world uses predominant oil,coal and gas as their main source of energy Wifi j combined consists of 87% of the worlds energy supply with the negative effects of this resulting in anthropogenic climate change resulting in increased incidence and strength of heatwaves,hurricanes and also ocean acidification.Herd we will analyse low carbon dioxide alternatives
Geothermal involves heat from the crust near mantle heats water in pipes that turns turbines and generates electricity.Even though there are a few places on Earth where it is easier to build geothermal power plants theoretically it can be done anywhere in the world provided one digs deep enough.Normal open systems involve creating artificial wells of water in the crust this caused entropy and can cause earthquakes.The correct way to carry out geothermal is through closed circuit loop geothermal plants that is where where the pipes form a closed loop system where water is pumped into the pipes,is heated,turns turbines as steam,cools condenses to form a liquid carrying out a looped cycle with the water never leaving the pipes.This prevents earthquakes and entropy.A 2017 study called A Global Review of enhanced geothermal system by Shyi-Min Lu of the Industrial Research Institute states that the energy reserves in the upper 10km of the Earth contains roughly 1.37×1027 joules enough to meet the worlds energy demands for 217,000,000 years.Estimations have been made that the upper ten kilometres of the mantle contains 50,000 more times the energy found in all remaining global coal,oil and gas reserves combined.Geothermal should account for 70% of the worlds energy.Construction of them can be fully automated in time with avoiding using water as an explosive will prevent earthquakes with to lower costs they can be built in place of existing nuclear,fossil fuel etc power plants.AI will decide to place them in areas away from faults and poor soil to prevent subsidence and other issues.Each proposed sites to build them will undergoe rigorous testing to see their suitability to prevent earthquakes,landslides,subsidence with the tests used to determine the best place to build them with fossil fuels especially bacteria based ones used in place of areas not suitable.systems can be used to provide air conditioning and heating to private and communal homes.Although geothermal does produce some carbon dioxide emissions it is roughly 98% less carbon dioxide than what is emitted by fossil fuels with this smaller amount and the sulphur dioxide and mercury released prevented from being emitted by SNOX filters present that can have the pollution captured and separated into commercial products.
Sai Liu, Arash Dahi Taleghani
All remaining reserves of oil,coal and gas should be harvested and burned but consist of at least 10% of the worlds energy supply compared to the current 87% to allow carbon sequestration programmes to convert it into biochar,Graphene,synthetic diamonds with carbon sequestration also carried out to remove excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.As carbon dioxide is released from power plants carbon sequestration programmes will remove them at a ratio of 1:1 that is for every tonne of carbon dioxide released one tonne is sequestered with this controlled by AI and automation have been developed that can create sugar,gasoline and methane as a carbon neutral fuel which could supply an endless supply of carbon neutral fuel forever.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666386420302381 – Shmuel Gleizer,Yinon M.Bar-On,Ron Milo,Roe Ben-Nissan
Wave,Tidal and hydropower
These combined should account for 10% of the world energy supply.All hydropower dams worldwide will be demolished and replaced by geothermal.Various smaller forms of dams etc can replace conventional dams.It is estimated that wave power has a global potential of up to 80,000 TW hours a year meaning it could supply 50% of the worlds energy alone.This is according to a 2007 report by International Energy Agency titled “Ocean-Potential”.All costal towns,villages and cities worldwide will utilise wave and tidal power to ensure energy abundance with this including major cities such as Beijing,New York etc
Many forms of harvesting wave energy exist and the benefit of this technology is that it can work 24/7,365 days a year.These forms include Voith Wells turbines that use air created by wave motions,racks and rake wheel designs can be integrated into oil rigs with large VAWTs ontop of them.Oyster and pontoon and other piston powered generators can be utilized to power towns and cities by the sea and wave generators located farther out to sea.Oyster wave power designs can generate 2.5MW of electricity from one device enough to power 2,500 homes all year by pumping pressurized water onshore to power a conventional hydropower turbine.Terminator wing shaped wave technology turbines could theoretically get 99% of a waves energy rather than the standard 50% of current models.All types of these and other designs could be combined with with tidal power stations located by the coast,offshore wind and solar farms thus increasing energy yields for nearby coastal towns and cities.
Anaconda wave generators could theoretically in farm of just twenty devices could generate at least 20MW and be invisible since they reside under the surface of the water.Wave generators could be utilized in offshore charging stations for cruise ships,ferries and sea based airports.Again meta-materials that bend light could make them invisible to preserve coastal beauty.A permanent layer of liquid glass can be sprayed onto them to prevent damage from the seawaters salt and acids as well as build up of dirt.
Piston buoys neat coastal areas where sharks are a native species especially those like the Great White that attack humans could form a chain enclosing a large section of the beach for swimmers to roam free extending to a large area out to deep ocean with radar detecting the specific signature of sharks and alerting the mainland.In areas that have sharks they would also be fitted with magnets designed to repel sharks preventing them from entering this enclosed area while generating large amounts of electricity and staying out of view to public by enclosing a wide area for the public to safely swim in.
Floating wave energy technologies can be fitted with atmospheric and ocean water sensors that measure environmental conditions and could generate energy during storms and hurricanes both in the deep sea or by the coast.Wave carpet technology involves placing carpet like structures on the sea floor near the coast where the wave motions cause it to pump water into a building and convert into energy.Since wave energy is dense and works 24/7,365 days a year it has been calculated that just one square metre can provide power for two households.Floating piston buoys on the surface can provide extra energy.If the carpet is composed of thermoelectric materials it could gain energy from the heat of the ocean during summer and from warmer ocean currents during winter months.
Like tidal power this energy source can function 24/7,365 days a year and can be grouped together with tidal power stations and smaller hydroelectric power to increase energy output.To improve energy yields all types of wave energy generation methods can be mixed together and with tidal power plants and smaller hydroelectric power plants making coastal towns and cities self sufficient.It is estimated that wave power has a global potential of up to 80,000 TW hours a year meanins it could supply 50% of the worlds energy alone.This is according to a 2007 report by International Energy Agency titled “Ocean-Potential”.All towns,villages and cities by the sea will utilise different types to alleviate strains on geothermal with them also using tidal and if rivers are present use different types of microhydropower to ensure abundance alongside geothermal.All islands around the world will use it as their main power source as well as all costal towns,villages and cities around the world such as New York,Los Angela’s,London etc with oil rigs turned into hotels and floating cities powered by it.It will be used alongside geothermal as a back to alleviate strains off the geothermal grid to extend the lifespan of geothermal and ensured energy abundance to constantly keep electricity bills low.Underwater communities would have pistons on the surface that are connected to them.Each site that used it will undergoe environmental studies to determine their effect on the environment and local sea fauna with any animals potentially effected by them undergoing genetic engineering to be unaffected using scratch DNA from Phanes with since geothermal will be able to meet the worlds energy needs for geological timescales this energy source will be used in areas where it has little to zero environmental effect in order to provide further abundance and alleviate strains on the geothermal grid to extend its lifespan.Thermoelectric material covered pipes can be connected to all types of pistons that dig deep into the mantle that then increase their energy output exponentially.Research can be done into which is the best type for each area with Steropes doing this with him also determining the best mixture of each type.Alongside tidal power,ocean current generators and small hydroelectric power it would consist of at least 10% of the worlds energy supply and be complimented by geothermal with all towns and cities worldwide by the ocean using this.They can also have thermoelectric materials built int them to turn heat from the sun and warm oceans particularly in the tropics into extra electricity.Wave carpet systems will utilise these.
This should account for 10% of the worlds energy supply with to deal with nuclear waste molten salt reactors used that reuse waste and shortens its half life with research made into tertiary sectors that burn this waste into more electricity abd shortens its half life and even other reactors that create more electricity from waste and can do this over and over again creating more electricity and shortens its half life exponentially to the point that waste lasts only several decades or years.Intensive research will be done into nuclear fusion power that created immense amounts of energy with zero waste and can meet the worlds energy demands for 60,000,000 – 150,000,000,000 years.Research will be made to extend the lifespan of nuclear power plants exponentially from 40 years to several centuries or more.Thereis at least several centuries worth of plutonium,thorium abc uranium in the Earths cruise and 300,000 years worth of uranium in the worlds oceans to meet our energy demands for some time.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/fusion-energy – Yican Wu, Sümer Şahin, in Comprehensive Energy Systems, 2018
Solar & Wind
Both combined should account for less than 1% of the worlds energy supply with solar consisting of only panels on rooftops and wing consisting of Vertical axis turbines not conventional horizontal axis turbines.Solar panels will be on roofs of homes and buildings with vertical axis turbines replacing horizontal one’s present of roofs and gardens as they are able to be much smaller than normal horizontal turbines and are more efficient at generating energy from the wind.
Vertical axis wind turbines(VAWT) which have many advantages over Horizontal Axis wind turbines and will replace them completely by 2029-2045.These have some advantages over HAWTS
•They are omni-directional and do not need to track the wind.This makes them much more reliable due to their not requiring a complex mechanism and motors to yaw the rotor and pitch the blades.They do not change orientation to match the wind direction as HAWTs must do.This reduces the number of parts.Almost all VAWTs feature a direct drive (they require no gearbox between the rotor and the generator).This significantly reduces operating costs while increasing durability and reliability.
•The gearbox of a VAWT takes much less fatigue than that of a HAWT.Should it be required,replacement is less costly and simpler,as the gearbox is easily accessible at ground level.This means that a crane or other large equipment is not needed at the site,reducing cost and impact on the environment.This also allows for maintenance to be fully automated by robots and more easily done by those using it via instructions streamed to them.Motor and gearbox failures generally increase the operational and maintenance costs of HAWT wind farms both on and offshore with VAWTs not having this issue.
•VAWTs (4Navitas) can use a screw pile foundation,allowing a huge reduction in the carbon cost of an installation as well as a reduction in road transport of concrete during installation.They can be fully recycled at the end of the their life.
•VAWT wings of the Darrieus type have a constant chord and so are easier to manufacture than the blades of a HAWT,which have a much more complex shape and structure.
•VAWTs can be grouped more closely in wind farms or even in gardens and roofs,increasing the generated power per unit of land area.VAWTs can also be installed on a wind farm below the existing HAWTs;this will improve the efficiency (power output) of the existing farm including offshore ones and can be onshore of offshore ones.Research at Caltech has also shown that a carefully designed wind farm using VAWTs can have an output power ten times that of a HAWT wind farm of the same size as HAWTs grouped togerther actually produce less energy than if alone with VAWTs actually producing more the more they are packed together as air blocked by one speeds up the others around it.This can also be applied to offshore windfarms and those on roofs and gardens.Those that are housed in a cylindrical core can be stacked ontop of each other.Offshore VAWTs can be created that are on floating strut like structures held to the sea floor or are held to the ground like conventional offshore ones replacing them.Furthermore VAWTs can house multiple turbines per device.
•HAWTs require the use of expensive and environmentally destructive rare earth elements and also copper in their design increasing the construction cost through extraction,mining and refining whereas VAWTs do not.All parts of VAWTs can be composed of carbon composites,plastics and steel that are not environmentally destructive.
•VAWTS can be more easily made at home ranging from small microturbines for use on roofs of private and communal homes and those and in a homes garden as garden feature to larger ones at the side of homes and large ones on roofs of communal homes.3D printing can play a huge role in the production of homemade VAWTs with others created onsite of Talos factories once ordered in.Small ones can be designed as seats or to hold water feature.They can be composed of steel,plastics and carbon composites.This would drastically reduce the environmental impact they have in construction costs with both large and small versions being homemade.
•VAWTs do not need to track the wind to produce energy as they are omnidirectional; any claimed inefficiencies are in fact cancelled out by the VAWT’s ability to take advantage of turbulent and gusty winds.Such winds are not harvested by HAWTs,and in fact cause accelerated fatigue for HAWTs.Thus VAWTs could more efficiently harvest wind energy from storms and hurricanes and by being made of light carbon composite metal materials such as graphene they can be more efficient at getting energy from gentle breezes and lower speeds that HAWTs cant catch and those from storms and hurricanes that would damage a HAWT.Ideally they would held into a block of concrete with carbon fibres by graphene bolts to keep them in place of hurricanes.Those in hurricane and storm prone zones would have the energy fed into community energy packs or other sets of Storedot biosynth batteries in homes to harvest and store as much energy as possible to power communities during and after them.
•VAWTs are reportedly much more efficient in turbulence,enabling rooftop and urban installations,and they turn at comparatively lower revolutions per minute,thus producing less vibration and noise.Most VAWT manufacturers quote noise levels of less than 40 dB at a distance of less than 20 ft/6m,while the few HAWT builders that offer such measurements often report 50 to 60 dB or more at much greater distances.Noise cancelling technology can be utilized to nullify any remaining sounds or hum produced by them.
•VAWTs are typically more compact and operate at lower elevations making them less visually intrusive.They can be covered in meta-materials in order to make them invisible.
•VAWTs are safer for both bats and birds with lower kill rates
The majority of the disadvantages associated with VAWT technology have been overcome by the use of modern composite materials and improvements in engineering and design.The blades of a VAWT were fatigue-prone due to the wide variation in applied forces during each rotation.This has been overcome by the use of modern composite materials and improvements in design; the use of aerodynamic wing tips causes the spreader wing connections to have a static load.The vertically oriented blades used in early models twisted and bent during each turn,causing them to crack.Over time,these blades broke apart,sometimes leading to catastrophic failure.VAWTs have in the past have proven less reliable than HAWTs.Modern designs of VAWTs have overcome many of the issues associated with early designs,however work remains to be done to perfect them.One of the major outstanding challenges facing vertical axis wind turbine technology is dynamic stall of the blades as the angle of attack varies rapidly.AI namely Hecate,Urania and Steropes can create designs etc that increase lifespan and efficiency and ease of construction.Winfarms of small turbines can through design up to ten times more energy.VAWTs should thus replace HAWTs with regards to energy generation from wind with the addition of them to existing HAWTs wind farms on land and at sea can increase the amount of energy harvested from these farms.Floating solar panels,wave energy generators and micro hyrdo turbines can also increase the energy output of existing wind farms.They can also be utilized at homes for a more efficient and less noisy and unsightly source of wind energy alongside homemade micro HAWTs put either next to a home or on a roof with liquid glass and graphene paint painted on to prevent rust and also generate extra energy particularly at sea based wind farms.Ideally micro turbines should be included on rooftops or next to ones home to cut down on wiring and any bird related deaths as well as allowing land that would be used for wind farms to be reforested and maintain their natural beauty as the electricity is fed directly into the home.Thus these systems will power homes and storedot biosynth batteries directly alongside thermoelectric material covered geothermal pipes and solar panels rather than using large windfarms.On rooftops of buildings 300-600 metres high both smaller and larger ones can be adopted as the winds are more consistent here than at sea level and can be part of rooftop gardens with even smaller ones being more effective here.This will consistent power when it is even not windy near ground.These can be on roofs,in gardens and variations of these can be on the sides of buildings on the walls.New floating turbines have been developed that go 304.8 – 609.6 metres and provide double the energy of VAWTs.Like HAWTs bird repellent technology,sensors for low flying aircraft and meta-materials that render them invisible can be utilized alongside noise cancelling technology.These would feed energy into batteries or for direct use.Certain models of vertical axis wind turbines such as those housed in cylindrical shaped housing can be stacked ontop of one another to further increase the amount of energy they produce.In time even the immense wind speeds of Jupiter,Saturn,Neptune etc can be harvested with VAWTs made of graphene and other materials without making the planet smaller.The energy would using Nyx and radiation be received on Earth by receivers that are part of Brontes or linked satellites also used by solar arrays that would share the energy with each other and then distribute it to different parts of the global energy grid Brontes on Earth would be able to distribute the energy to all parts of the world evenly or where picotech fabricators are thus powering the entire world indefinitely with the same applied to other colonies.
Solar panels on-site of solar farms would be moved to the roofs of homes etc with solar thermal power being the main avenue of solar power with it done in primarily sunny parts of the world and would also involve using liquids with low boiling points to see if they can be done in areas that are not as hot.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/vertical-axis-wind-turbine#:~:text=A vertical axis wind turbine,turbine, which makes maintenance easy.
A single global energy grid will be formed across the world with the sentient AI Steropes becoming the universal sentient energy body for the entire world.He will organise the setting up of all power plants to ensure that they follow the desired energy parameters that is geothermal consists of 70% of the global energy supply,Nuclear fission 10%,fossil fuels such as oil,coal and gas combined consisting of 10% and renewable like tidal,wave and hydropower 10%.Each power plant will be controlled by AI that control all robots,drones etc with Steropes the sentient operating software that links them all across the universe.Intensive carbon sequestration programmes