Geothermal power plants for the electrical grid will become the predominant form of electricity generation that can be utilised in any area of the world providing one digs deep enough.Geothermal is hands down the winner in all categories except scalability and start up costs.AI and automation namely Steropes will be able to carry preliminary seismic sensing,test well drilling,confirmation testing and other tests and procedures that need to be carried out thus allowing him to decide the best location and methods of developing geothermal power plants.Geothermal power is hands down the winner for yield; you can get more energy from a large scale geothermal power station than is feasible running a thousand uranium mines; to get the same power from nuclear energy would require thousands of nuclear power plants where really only one uber scale geothermal station could generate all of our power needs; 18 terawatts or more.Geothermal power is accessible within 200 metres to give us more than 4,000 times more energy than we use with new research in Iceland using magma enhanced geothermal and theoretically geothermal plants can increase there output by adding extensions with extra turbines and extra piping put down with these in side and underground extensions.The world uses every year roughly 0.5ZJ(zeta joule) of energy and 2,000ZJ or 2YJ of energy is available with existing technology(out of a possible of at least 13,000ZJ or 13YJ) meaning there is at least 4,000 years of geothermal energy available according to a 2006 Massachusetts Institute of Technology report; it alone could single handily power the world for the next 4,000 years with the possibility of improved technology extending that even furthermore possibly even doubling it with further advances in the technology and more efficient techniques.If all 13,000 ZJ could be tapped with further improvements by AI then geothermal could meet the worlds energy needs for 26,000 years.A f study called A Global Review of enhanced geothermal system by Shyi-Min Lu of the Industrial Research Institute states that the energy reserves in the upper 10km of the Earth contains roughly 1.37×1027 joules enough to meet the worlds energy demands for 217,000,000 years.Estimations have been made that the upper ten kilometres of the mantle contains 50,000 more times the energy found in all remaining global coal,oil and gas reserves combined.Harvesting energy from all of the 2,890km of the mantle alongside the outer and inner core roughly 6,510km could potentially provide our energy needs for at least a few billion years.If the amount of energy available does in fact increase exponentially the deeper one goes into the Earth then the amount of energy available from harvesting all energy in all 6,510km of the mantle,outer and inner core could be as much as 141,267,000,000 years – longer than the 4,500,000,000 year age of the Earth,longer than the age of the universe roughly 14,000,000,000 – 15,000,000,000 years compared to the 2,500 years of fossil fuels left in the Earths crust with Steropes etc researching ways to harvest energy from the lower mantle and even outer and inner core of the Earth to provide cheap energy for millions or billions of years.This could give us 32,550,000 times more energy than all remaining reserves of oil,coal and gas combined.Put simply we have only scratched the surface on the true potential of geothermal – the deeper one goes the deeper exponentionally greater the amount of power and energy one can harvest and thus the longer it’s lifespan is and thus the more the cost of this energy source can be kept to zero compared to fossil fuels,wave,wind and solar.It could also allow excess energy to be directed through Brontes to power first generation hypothetical energy intensive projects.The location of pipes will be logged in Bruaron to allow future infrastructure projects to be built around them.If possible once research has been done to show that it is feasible for it to generate extra electricity thermoelectric materials can be built into the piping of all geothermal plants to further increase the amount of energy extracted from the earths mantle turned directly into electricity connected to the grid with graphene also in its matrix due to its high thermoconductivity allowing for more heat to be extracted from the mantle with its strength and high melting point also allowing it go deep into the mantle to the very lower depths of the mantle roughly 2,890km to extract even more energy via heat,pressure etc.Its high electroconductivity can also transfer more electricity much quicker.If possible it could be possible to have pipes reach the outer or inner core.Thus all piping as part of all geothermal power plants will be covered in thermoelectric materials to generate exponentionally more electricity by converting the immense heat of the mantle,outer and inner core into extra electricity for each power plant with them covered in or interwoven with in graphene due to it strength and high melting point allowing it to go deep into the mantle,outer and inner core and also its high electroconductivity allowing for electricity generated by the thermoelectric materials to be transferred much more quickly and easier to the surface with its melting point of 3,652 – 4,626.85 degrees celcius can allow it to go deeper and survive high temperatures with the lower mantle roughly 3,700 degrees celcius.Its high thermoconductivity will allow more heat to be extracted from the mantle,outer and inner cores.Graphenes tensile strength is roughly 130GPa and compressive strength of roughly 270GPa allowing it to survive the immense pressure.Carbyne which has a compressive strength of at least 270GPa and other nanomaterials may have to be integrated into the structure to survive the lower mantle which is 136GPa compared to graphenes which is 130GPa but its compressive strength of 361GPa may aid it.Research will be made into other nanomaterials with better electronductivity and higher melting points and compressive and tensile strength.Research will be done into newer thermoelectric materials with older pipes replaced with newer pipes with this done by older pipes extracted from the crust by AI etc and then cooled and recycled after replaced with newer pipes.Since the heat from the mantle and core is continuous due to convectional currents then this vast amount of energy that superseeds all remaining reserves of fossil fuels will be availible all year long over and over again with no extraction of wells etc in both home systems and power plants rather than in one go due to the finite nature of fossil fuels.The AI in charge of geothermal power plants and also Steropes,Urania and Hecate would spearhead research into this means of increasing energy extraction as early as 2029 and thus extending its lifespan to 26,000 – 217,000,000 years with this possible between 2045-2100.Otherwise the excess 11,000ZJ can be via Brontes used to power first generation and full form energy intensive technologies alongside fusion power and also dyson swarms and in time then diverted to the grid when needed.This should meet our energy needs until fusion power and quantum singularities are fully developed both of which can provide clean energy for the world for billions of years consigning fossil fuels to the dustbin of history.A single macro scale (300 metres in diameter stacked turbines a kilometre high or so over a tubed network of tunnels that gain heat from lava heat.)well could generate easily more than 18 terrawats..There are several different ways to go about obtaining geothermal energy or drilling.Thus the only good way to do geothermal power is to drill a conventional well using conventional standard drilling technologies,and then to build proper closed circuit double loop systems that require little maintenance through the entirety of their lifetime rather than sloppily constructed imitations.What this means is that firstly,an actual linear well is drilled straight down into the earth,secondly,the pipes are merged together,thirdly,that the water which is heated to power the system never leaves the piping which contains it,and fourthly,that water is circulated down on one circuit or loop and rises as steam on a second circuit or loop.
Sai Liu, Arash Dahi Taleghani
Construction of geothermal power plants:
The alternative being now explored in both construction and running of conventional geothermal power plants is to use water as an explosive,and to drill non linear wells by pumping water into rock.This creates many small fractures or fissures in the rock,rather than a straight down conventional well.It also can cause earthquakes,is prone to the problem of erosion,and is likely to create a geothermal system which cools very quickly,especially when compared to closed circuit double loop.Earthquakes can be frequent in geothermal power plants as they are running due to the water leaving pipes coming into contact with the mantle which causes explosions and fractures and in turn tremors with this more prevalent during installation where water is used to fracture rocks to dig hole and can even occur after construction when the plant is generating electricity.This water coming into contact with the magma also causes water vapour a potent greenhouse gas to shoot up with Mercury,carbon dioxide,sulphur and nitrogen oxides present in the mantle,crust also being released mixed in with the water vapour.Furthermore as time goes on this cooling of the mantle and crust can also cause land near the power plant or even some distance from it to lose strength,fracture and subside causing landslides and large areas of land potentially holding housing for humans,roads and other key infrastructure to subside leading to property damage and loss of human life.Furthermore the escape of water cools the crust and mantle making wells cool down and potentially become worthless to generating steam and thus electricity after centuries,decades or years.This is dangerous,sloppy,outdated and the worst way to create geothermal vents.Claims made about current systems that they are closed systems are obviously false,if the water leaves the tubes and pipes then there is obviously potential for that water to leave the geothermal system and causing seismic activity.Another issue to consider is that a true closed circuit double loop system never loses water and never loses pressurization removing the threat of earthquakes caused by escaping water cooling and fracturing hot rocks.Since the water never leaves the pipes and never comes into contact with the crust and mantle it can go much deeper even into the lower mantle and possibly outer and inner core to harvest more energy via steam and thermoelectric materials and never cools the rock and mantle allowing it work forever.The systems which are now being created by corporations are highly entropic,and while they may for the time being demonstrate properties of a closed system,they are certainly not truly closed and are done only to cut costs.By avoiding the use of water as an explosive in their construction of geothermal power plants and prevent water escaping when they are generating electricity in true closed circuit double loop systems both earthquakes and subsidence alongside the cooling of vents is avoided alongside potentially the release of Mercury,carbon dioxide etc with graphene and other carbon composite drills etc used.What they are now calling “Advanced Geothermal Systems” are in fact open loop,primarily vertical systems terminating in entropic and random lesser micro circuits that because of the way they are created may be any combination of vertical,horizontal,or diagonal.Such systems are not in any real way advanced,they are in fact just an exotic and idiotic way to cut corners.Claims are frequently made that conventional drilling technology can’t dpp core and strong enough to withstand the wear and tear of boring into the crust.For these corner cutting systems they are now creating trying to save money,they spend typically two years just making sure that the hot rock is permeable,and can be easily fractured.Thats a two year slow down compared to conventional well Geothermal power,which does not require such specific conditions to work.While it is true that conventional well geothermal systems may cost more,the time to return on investment is much shorter,potentially as short as 4 years.A conventional geothermal power system could be built with far higher yields than any fractured hot rock open loop system,because the heat energy is more directly accessed and more directly uncovered.Scalability is a very important issue because as you increase in scale,your costs per unit of recovered energy go down.This method is flawed in that corners are being cut to save money,but the systems they are building operate at much smaller scales than a conventional well geothermal system can,and thus over the medium term (10 – 15 years) a conventional well system that is very large will prove to also end being more cost effective and more efficient.Double circuit closed loop systems should be used as the water used to turn the turbines never leaves the pipes.Due to water never leaving the pipes in truly double circuit closed loop systems earthquakes never occur and subsidence never occurs with simulations done to asses the viability of placing geothermal plants in each area to prevent earthquakes and subsidence especially during their construction via building them far away from faults and areas prone to subsidence.Ideally the systems we want need to be designed are those using closed circuit double loop system geothermal power stations wherein the water never leaves the loop system and would thus last for centuries if not even millenia and if possible indefinitely.AI namely Steropes,Hecate etc will ensure power plants follow the closed circuit double loop systems that has water never leave the piping with existing non closed circuit double loop systems converted into these to eliminate existing problems of them causing tremors and earthquakes etc.Automated systems can be integrated to allow any problems to be solved by the plant AI remotely viewed by the public via Hermes
Due to its nature some areas may be unsuitable for geothermal power such as areas near faults and earthquake zones and areas where the soil and crust is poor and prone to subsidence and landslides etc with in these cases fossil fuel power plants especially those that using synthetic versions of of oil,coal and gas will be used.Each site used for geothermal in every country will undergoe strict VR and onsite assessments of the soil and location of faults done by Steropes,Hecate,Uranus and Gaia etc using robots,humans and biosynths for assessment on the viability of safety and yields of power to ensure maximum yields and prevent any environmental and seismic problems such as earthquakes.Ideally geothermal plants should be located inland away from faults and tectonic plates as well as far away from areas prone to natural disasters such as tsunamais with them also having graphene and carbon composite materials etc present to make them flexible and resistant to damage caused by earthquakes and able to wobble and withstand damage tremors may cause with them also having self healing polymers present.Coastal cities and towns will be powered mainly by wave and tidal with research done into using better means of transferring electricity from power plants to cities without loss of energy.AI can on a map of all countries across the world detail all known faults and also areas where tsunamais have occurred in the past and are likely occur based on the location of surface and underwater faults and areas prone to tsunamis thus allowing them to be located in safe areas.Areas near faults may have geothermal plants located some distance possibly several kilometres away or use fossil fuels both virgin fuels from the crust and synthetic versions.Fusion power may also be used as it cannot cause meltdowns should an earthquake occur.Fossil fuel power plants that burn oil,coal and gas including synthetic versions may be used in areas unsuitable for geothermal.The closed nature of closed circuit double loop systems will prevent water escaping and thus prevent the fracturing of rock and exacerbating existing fault lines.Each area for these geothermal power plants wil be assessed for the stability of the ground and also location of faults and also its effect on local geysers and other environmental factors carried out by Rhea,Pan,Steropes and other AI alongside humans with areas not suitable for geothermal will utilise fossil fuels both from existing reserves and also bacteria based fossil fuels and even fusion power combined with in the case of coastal areas wave,tidal power and if possible fission power.There are very few places in the world where geothermal cannot be done with the question being thickness of the crust,stability of the crust and location of faults.The majority of the United States of America except for a few places such by the San Andreas fault and other major faults can use geothermal safely with Austrailia,New Zealand,Canada,Africa,Russia,Ireland,Britain and most of Central Europe especially Germany,France and the Eastern Bloc alongside most of China,South East Asia and South America can safely use geothermal.Other places such as Chile and the western coast of South America,Italy,western coast of North America and also parts of China and Japan and may require geothermal power plants to be set up some distance from faults and have intensive assesntments of the underground area to detect the prescence of both major and minor faults but also unknown minor faults not already known with if possible these areas also using a combination of wave power,floating sea based solar thermal power plants and also fossil fuels both virgin reserves from the crust and synthetic versions.Since most of the worlds cities,towns and villages are located in safe zones away from faults then it could up easily account for at least 70% of the worlds energy supply and 70% of each countries energy needs.Research will be done to develop better ways of detecting the location and direction of underground faults with also research into ways to limit the instigation of earthquakes from setting up and maintains geothermal power plants.For example not using water as an explosive but instead drilling down using drills composed of graphene or covered in graphene paint could allow drills to be made without initiating earthquakes both near faults but also in areas away from faults.Pipes used in geothermal power plants could be composed of graphene,have them in their matrix and have graphene paint on them and have in their matrix alloys,elements and metals etc that allow them to be flexible to allow them to be flexible meaning during an earthquake the pipes could bend enough to not rupture.Use of a double closed circuit loop system will prevent water escaping thus preventing earthquakes.
Preventing the cutting of corners in the construction of geothermal power plants will over its lifetime save money and improve its return on investment.This is important when figuring the cost of solving the problem of our total energy crisis,because if you use very large scale Geothermal Power stations of the conventional well type,the problem can be solved for probably as little as $100,000,000,000.That equates to $460 – $25,000,000 per year of its 4,000 – 217,000,000 year life cycle compared to the roughly $5,300,000,000,000 spent globally to subsidize fossil fuels by all G-20 governments every year roughly 1.88% of it.Thus converting the world to geothermal in one go would cost us only 1.88% of what we spend on subdidising fossil fuel every year.Even if it would be $5,300,000,000,000 or even more to convert the world to geothermal in one single payment its still cheaper than the subsides of fossil fuels spent every year in the long run.The point being switching to geothermal will eliminate our dependency on fossil fuels and power the world indefinitely regardless the cost of switching to it with advances in automation and robotics during construction lowering human labour and costs considerably.Spending $5,300,000,000,000 to convert the world permanently to geothermal will equate to $24,423 – $1,325,000,000 for each year of its lifecycle roughly 0.025% of what the world spends annually on fossil fuel subsidies.This means that this would mean 0.025% of what is spent annually would be spent overall on subsidising all remaining 2,600 plus years supplies of oil,gas,coal etc and those on Titan.Whatever way you look at it geothermal out trumps fossil fuels in every way possible in terms of economics especially when bacteria based gasoline,oil and methane will make gas and oil companies defunct by 2029.By at least 2040-2090 most if not all of the world will be converted to the required 70% dependency on geothermal with money having being made obsolete overall and by both automation and AI namely Steropes making all energy corporations and government agencies defunct by 2029.If you instead make lots of short term corner cutting el cheapo wells,the cost of solving the problem with geothermal power rises into the trillions of dollars over the long term.Existing coal,oil and incinerator power plants and possibly even nuclear fission power plants around the world could be converted into geothermal power plants to cut down on costs with any remaining space torn down and reforested thus reducing costs involved in building a new power plant from scratch with existing old non double circuit closed loop power plants around the world converted into proper double circuit closed loop plants to improve efficiency,prevent future earthquakes and seismic issues and water wastage with them and new ones located some distance from major tectonic plates with Brauron used to carry out simulations as to the best location.These power plants would continue to burn fossil fuels and uranium while being converted into them with extensions housing the first set of pipes with when set up the rest of the original area housing the second set of pipes converting them into large powerful geothermal plants to ensure that the area is still provided with electricity during conversion.Thus preventing a disruption in the electricity supply.If possible non double circuit closed loop plants can be converted into homes when proper ones are built in the surrounding area with this done after the new power plant is built in the same area away from faults.Automation,AI and eventually biosynths can cut costs down more.Steropes and plant AIs will manage the construction of these by 2029 not only to cut down on costs but also to plan out their construction and where they are placed in the most efficient way possible to maximise efficiency in terms of output but also their lifespan ensuring each one built will last for centuries and millenia and ensure no corners are cut and existing ones created and planned out by humans will be modified to be as efficient as possible and last as long as possible and manage extensions to increase output.Renovations will be done to increase the lifespan of each plant managed by the power plant AI.To further cut down labour,time etc costs existing gas,oil,coal and even nuclear power plants will be converted into geothermal power plants while they still burn fossil fuels and are still burning physical fuels with extensions made to house the first set of piping and once they are powering the area extra piping will be placed in the main building making a large geothermal power plant with these and future ones being constructed by automation to further cut down costs.These power plants will continue burning oil,coal and gas as well as uranium etc while they are converted into geothermal power plants and will stop using physical fuels until they are fully powered by geothermal power plants to prevent a disruption of electricity.Excess energy can be fed to nearby towns etc not powered by them.Areas of the world that are powered by hydroelectric power plants will have geothermal power plants set up and then the hydroelectric power plants demolished to prevent disruption of electricity.Steropes will develop the means to turn existing non double circuit closed loop geothermal power plants into proper double circuit closed loop geothermal power plants that will last forever with him ensuring that newly built ones that replace fossil fuel power plants will be double circuit closed loop geothermal power plants where the water never leaves the pipes.This could first have the building have fossil fuel burner present to burn fuel from oil and gas or have a first set of pipes in extensions added that provide enough power to then either have the original pipes removed completely or have the replaced with proper double circuit closed loop.In theory,theres virtually nowhere in the world whether first or third world that we can’t do geothermal power,the only question is depth.Some places are more suited to geothermal than others due to thinner crusts and due to them being closer to mantle by having thinner crusts,however the reality is geothermal can be carried out anywhere in the world provided you dig deep enough into the crust to reach hot areas areas close to the mantle.At the 6 kilometre mark,very few places on Earth are not hot enough to give us a steady stream of heat.Perhaps more importantly,the USA is speckled here and there with small but very real tectonic incongruities where the heat is much closer to the surface than the average.Thus it could easily bring countries like India,China and the entire continent of Africa etc out of the energy dark ages without having to use fossil fuels at all especially rural villages quickly bringing the poorest of the poor in the developing world to 21st century standards in as little as decade.All of the power we need is within 200 metres of the surface,probably all of the power we need is within 100 metres of the surface.Enhanced Geothermal Systems permits geothermal projects virtually anywhere,based on the fact that temperatures increase in the earth with depth making countries and communities self sufficient with regards to their energy needs.Underground and underwater communities will benefit greatly from geothermal due to them closer to the mantle with any gas directed via piping into biochar plantations present there or to the surface or within these communities designed by AI.Double circuit closed looped once built can be remodelled over time with extra piping and turbines and even side extensions through advances in technology overtime to increase their energy output or newer larger plants built near them over time while older ones are dismantled or renovated into homes by automated machinery.Geothermal power has been done quite well now in a variety of places,in fact geothermal power even now accounts for a small percentage of Americas power supply.There are several hundred geothermal power stations world wide,most of them at fairly small relative scales.Direct geothermal heat to the surface is useful at heats below whats good for power generation via water thermal transfer.A good geothermal well drops into a metal chamber whose surface is cooking at 200 or 300 degrees,which turns the water to steam pretty quick especially if you then run a coil tube system at that level.There are a large variety of different kinds of geothermal power stations and as with all such systems some are better than others.Beneath your feet some distance is lava heat at 500 degrees and hotter.The actual availability of it is that it is pretty rare to find a place where that heat is less than about 5 kilometre under the surface.However; there is a bellcurve here which brings that heat in some few places directly to the surface in such places as Hawaii or Yellowstone National Park.And,so in truth the accessibility of it is that it is more accessible than oil.The reason why is that the surveyed heat to be found available in those rare up swellings where it gets to within 200 metres of the surface is 2000 times more energy than the USA currently uses.In other words,in theory,if we only tapped heat as low as 200 metres there is 2,000 times more heat than America alone needs with countries with lower energy uses having exponentionally larger more heat at this depth.
Avoiding the use of water as an explosive during installations will eliminate earthquakes and wasting water via making aquifers in the crust and this dangerous and outdated practice of setting up geothermal systems can be potentially replaced by drilling into the Earths crust and possibly deeper mantle using graphene composite drills or those covered in graphene paint due to its high melting point and then laying down piping using graphene based machinery into looped systems that can survive the heat and pressure of the mantle and outer core can allow truly double circuit closed loop systems wherein they form a closed looped system in the crust and mantle where then water is then pumped into the double circuit closed loop system to allow the water that never leaves the loop system via it being heated,evaporated,turns turbines and then cools,condenses to be heated again and again within the piping after turning turbines that generates electricity.Therefore in the end geothermal as time goes by with improvements in technology becomes exponentially cheaper than oil,coal and gas combined.By using truly double circuit closed loop systems where the water never leaves the pipes it will prevent earthquakes during their running by preventing water escaping and coming into contact with the mantle and rocks.Thus closed double circuit loops of pipes of graphene composites covered in thermoelectric materials digging deep into the crust and possibly mantle that allows water to never leave the pipes to turn turbines and thermoelectric materials that convert heat into electricity is how geothermal should be done worldwide allowing it to replace fossil fuels.Thermoelectric material covering the geothermal pipes will be used due to them creating large amounts of electricity via converting heat from the crust or mantle etc directly into extra vast reserves of electricity with no carbon dioxide thus exponentially increasing energy produced by each power plant if they go deep into the mantle and outer and inner core.The deeper the pipes covered in thermoelectric materials go the more energy they will extract.They can extract heat from the mantle or outer and inner core that can be thus converted into electricity thus exponentionentially increasing the amount of energy each power plant produces with the pipes forming loops and spirals in the crust,mantle and outer and inner core further increasing both surface area and amount of electricity generated exponentially for each power plant.Steropes will plan out the best means of increasing power output for each power plant.Graphene due to it being 200 times stronger than steel having tensile strength being 130 gigapascals(carbynes which is 270 could be used as well) could strengthen the pipes and its melting point of 3,652 – 4,626.85 degrees celcius can allow pipes and drills withstand high temperatures and pressure generated by the mantle and both the outer and inner core.Having pipes composed of graphene and thermo-pizoelectric materials can allow them to reach the mantle and both the outer and inner core to generate more electricity.Having graphene in the pipings matrix and matrix of the thermoelectric materials would also aid this since it has a higher thermoconductivity and electroconductivity than most metals and allow it to absorb more heat and transfer electricity better from the mantle etc thus meaning even deeper pipes will extract more heat and energy.Graphenes high melting point,high strength,high thermoconductivity and electroconductivity when integrated into thermoelectric materials will allow them to go deeper into the mantle if not the outer and inner core thus extracting more heat converted directly into electricity but also absorbing more heat and transferring this heat and the electricity much faster to the surface power plants and thus grid.Having the pipes composed of thermoelectric materials and graphene will make them flexible and thus able to form many loops and spirals in the lower mantle or outer and inner core thus increasing the surface area they can form in the lower mantle if not outer and inner mantle.All of this having pipes composed of thermostat-piezoelectric materials and graphene and forming loops and spirals would exponentionally increase the amount of the energy that each power plant would produce and adopted globally increase geothermals lifespan from the estimated 217,000,000 years or even more to as much as a few billion years.Intensive research will be done into nanomaterials composed of all 94 elements to increase the strength,thermoconductivity,electroconductivity and melting point of the pipes especially when combined with each other in alloys to go deeper into the outer and inner mantle..Having turbines composed of graphene could increase power output by at least 86% with the use of synthetic liquids that have lower boiling points also increasing output.If possible extra turbines and even extra pipes and turbines can be added to plants to increase power output.To increase power output new pipes that go deeper,are composed of better nanomaterials and better thermoelectric materials will be laid down and older pipes taken up and then replaced by these better pipes to prevent disruption and have extra pipes to generate more energy with all work done by robots,biosynths etc controlled by power plant AIs and Steropes.Other nanomaterials of the same structure that have a high melting point that also have a high thermoconductivity and electroconductivity will be added into the matrix as alloys to improve the yields of electricity and survive the immense temperatures,pressure etc.Research can be done into using liquids other than water for the piping should water scarcity be an issue in the area or region or to limit the expenditure of this resource with the possibility of using liquids with lower boiling points thus allowing for pipes to not go as deep with this especially of note in areas where the crust may be thick and thus one may not have to dig extra deep to gain heat from the earths magma.This can eliminate the use of water completely and may generate more electricity than water.If possible once discovered the synthetic or natural liquids with lower boiling points can be introduced into the pipes as the water is removed managed by AI and the water returned to lakes,rivers and the ocean where it can return to the hydrological cycle.The pipes can be composed of metals that are close circuit double loop and and the pushed into bored holes or they can be composed of thermoplastics,graphene,other nanomaterials and thermoelectric materials that are flexible like rubber and plastics that can have one end connected to the house and one part connected to a machine that then has the mid part of the pipes goes through a bored hole and is pushed downwards into the deep crust and mantle and part connected to the machine connected to the house to form a loop.If possible a miniature graphene composite boring device with rudder flagellum like protrusions can be attached to these aforementioned flexible pipes and bore down in a directed manner with AI developing ways to push it deep into crust and mantle me and ensure it can stay there and possibly form stable loops to increase surface area.Power plant AIs and Steropes can spearhead research into exponentionally increasing power output for each power plant and capturing as much energy from the mantle and outer and inner cores with by 2029-2045 AI and automation advanced enough to carry out renovations to each power plant.They will also develop ways to convert existing open system geothermal power plants around the world into double closed circuit loop system geothermal power stations and have pipes composed of thermoelectric materials and graphene and form spirals deep in the mantle or outer and inner core to not only increase energy output but also don’t cause earthquakes with them first fitted by new pipes of this kind and old pipes are replaced by them to prevent disruption.Thus double closed circuit loop system geothermal power stations wherein the water never leaves the loop system via it being heated,evaporated,turns turbines and then cools,condenses to be heated again and again within the piping after turning turbines preventing earthquakes are the solution to the worlds energy needs.This is because it can be done anywhere in the world,provide power 24/7,365 days a year in any climate,season,weather and time of day and out trumps other renewables like solar and wind in terms of output,cost and viability,and out trumps fossil fuels in terms of energy output,cost and environmental impact.Excess heat produced can be used to heat nearby homes,public greenhouses,hot springs etc.All pipes that lead to hot springs etc will be underground to prevent them affecting the environment.All piping used in geothermal plants will before filled with water have miniature robots scan in the locations of all piping(or this could be done before construction via blueprints and simulations made on computer)into the Artemis network to allow future infrastructure projects in the area can be properly planned without interfering with them.Drilling and the construction of all types of geothermal wells and power plants should be capable of being automated from start to finish within a decade.Steropes will perform studies as to the safety of this in areas prone to natural disasters like earthquakes etc.Fossil fuels,fusion etc will be pursued in areas where geothermal is too dangerous.Existing fossil fuel plants will converted into geothermal ones by adding piping while physical fuels are still ordered in.Geothermal is by orders of magnitude the cheapest form of energy out there.No other form of energy is as potentially cheap because of accessibility and permanency issues.The only way that any other kind of energy can falsely claim to be cheaper is by only measuring very short term costs/ benefits.Coal is not the cheapest and nor is oil,that only works if you only do math for two or five years and exclude a long term cost benefit analysis over 20 and of course the massive subsidies sent by the world.At the end of your investment period with geothermal,that initial $100,000,000,000 generates electricity for geological time;non ceasing as accounting for weather,rain or snow,sunshine,day or night without any fuel being extracted and transported,without any new wells being dug or new methods being devised to get the stuff up.All geothermal power stations built well should keep churning out power at dollars to the Terrawat hundreds or thousands of years after we build them 24/7,365 days a year without having to transport any more material into them to fuel them that would in turn expend more energy via mining and transportation.Thus geothermal using double closed circuit loop technology will be able to provide energy 24/7,367 days a year,in any climate and country around the world,any weather and any time of the day with no effect on their output.
Geothermal power plants:
By orders of magnitude geothermal beats all other contenders hands down for how green it is.These will be part of all geothermal power plants with plant AI automatically removing the filters and separating the wastes and replacing them with others in a rotary system or passive methods can be developed.Geothermal plants require much smaller amounts of land than most other power sources(0.21-1.48 sq.km)like say nuclear power(20.5 sq. km).Compared to other sources such as coal plants requires 9,432 sq.km/GWH(14,762.93 sq.km/GWH if one takes into account land used for strip mining),solar photovoltaics 8,383sq.km/GWH,wind 3,457sq.km/GWH,for nuclear fission its 3,107.986sq.km/GWH,while a modest sized geothermal plant needs a mere 1,046 sq.km/GWH.By orders of magnitude,geothermal beats all other contenders hands down for potential yield.Thus geothermal needs anywhere between 67-89% less land than all other sources of energy to produce the same amount of energy.Having a geothermal power plant take up the same amount of land as these other types of power plants could create and provide 67-89% more energy than coal,wind,solar,fission etc.They use 20 litres of freshwater per MWh versus over 1,000 litres per MWh for nuclear,coal,or oil.1,000 new nuclear power stations still require fissile materials to be extracted and transported with this having damaging effects on the environment and require alot more land not only for the plant itself but also for reprocessing plants.Thus they require about 98% less water to function with the use of looped systems and even using liquids with lower boiling points bringing this to 100% less water.Geothermal power stations can be made with a higher yield out put than any nuclear power station could run on and still be safe and not need exclusion zones.Geothermal plants have been recorded to produce some carbon dioxide roughly 27.24-45 kgs/MWh depending on their efficiency while coal releases 998-1,050 kgs/Mwh roughly 2.59 – 4.50% the amount of carbon dioxide of that from coal.This is a decrease of almost 95.5 – 97.3% in carbon dioxide emissions.In otherwards having the worlds energy come from geothermal would reduce carbon dioxide emissions from 37.1Gt to 0.9-1.66Gt annually meaning it would take roughly 22-41 years for a geothermally powered world to reach the same amount of carbon dioxide emissions of our current fossil fuel powered world does in one year thus slowing the rate of climate change and amount of carbon dioxide to be sequestered drastically while still providing cheap,realiable power in any climate that outrumps all other energy sources in terms of energy output including solar,wind,oil,coal and gas.This would give us more time to sequester excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.All other forms of energy have thousands or millions of times larger a size for ecological foot print as SNOX filters can be built into the plants system preventing the escape of any noxious gases such as sulfur and nitrogen oxide,methane released by geothermal plants which can be converted into sulphuric and nitrogen fertiliser with mercury released captured and then sent to Aphrodite plants.The SNOX filters can be designed to filter out these passively by using passive processes and anabolic and catabolic reactions to capture the pollutants and release them into the atmosphere as benign substances or they can removed by AI,automation,biosynths etc with zero human labour routinely and the pollutants removed and sent to Aphrodite factories to be recycled or the filters can be designed to filter them down passively into areas inside the power plant where they can be cooled passively.SNOX filters particulary biosynth ones with nanomaterials can be developed that passively move these downwards into the stacks to be passively moved to where they can be collected and transported automatically with the possibility of these filters placed at the bottom of smokestacks inside the power plant just to where it can be removed and/or replaced easily indoors with AI developing ways to have filters replaced automatically or have toxins passively transported to where they can be transported to Aphrodite buildings to be used as commercial purposes or prevent it creating these toxins in place.AI will develop ways to do this in a way to limit human labour or any miniscule amounts leaking thus pushing their environmental effects down to zero with the filters composed of nanomaterials of atom thick allotropes from all 94 elements including graphene and biosynth tissues and technology using plant,animal and scratch DNA being mixed together to improve efficiency.Thus SNOX filters composed of nanomaterials the same structure as graphene and biosynth technology will capture mercury,nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide and other pollutants to be then shipped to Aphrodite buildings for various purposes.This could also capture all minuscule amounts of carbon dioxide released by geothermal power plants that can be shipped to local greenhouses to be sequester into biochar.Over the next 4,000 years 3,600Gt will be released over its lifetime with this being only 35% of what is currently in all remaining reserves of fossil fuels worldwide with a fossil fuel powered world releasing this in just only 97 years.Over 26,000 years it would release 23,400Gt which is slightly higher than of what is in all remaining reserves of fossil fuels about 63% more(163%) and would be released by a fossil fuelled world in 632 years.This smaller amount of emissions can be easily sequestered via biochar programs using artificial trees with greenhouses,Cannabis sativa and Bambusoideae can be implemented alongside these which not only take in this smaller amount of carbon dioxide but sequester it in the form of biochar for its various commodities like graphene,fertiliser,carbyne and diamonds but can also improve the scenery in areas around them.Mercury and other toxins can be also collected and used for commercial uses using filters.Nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide and any Mercury and other toxic gases can be intaken by the Bambusoideae and C.sativa through engineering and separated from the biochar to be used as commercial products with oxygen released into the atmosphere or sent to liquid glass factories etc and used as other products to keep the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere at stable levels.Artificial trees that capture one to ten or even a hundred tonnes of carbon dioxide per day can otherwise collect this onsite of the powerplant inside and then transport it to nearby vertical farms as fertiliser or greenhouses for biochar once turned into dry ice with the amount of artificial trees used and the how much carbon dioxide they intake through modification to be determined by the amount of carbon dioxide released every day by each power plant with them inside where the smokestacks are rerouted.
All water vapour released by conventional geothermal power plants can prevented from being released via using closed double circuit loops with if possible the use of closed double circuit loops also preventing the release of Mercury,sulphur and nitrous oxides and even carbon dioxide etc since these usually are released within the steam produced by them that exists due to conventional geothermal power plants not being closed systems as the water exits the system and then interacts with magma,then evaporates and also releases stored sulphur,nitrous oxide,mercury etc in the crust and magma within the mantle.Thus simulations and use of closed double circuit looped systems will show if this theory is correct and negate the need for SNOX filters etc and rerouting smokes takes are not needed.Thus by using closed double circuit looped systems we could prevent the water escaping and cooling the magma that thus creates and releases Mercury,water vapour,carbon dioxide,sulphur and nitrogen dioxide etc into the atmosphere and thus reduce the pollution and environmental effect of geothermal power to literlly zero or at least 90-95% of what it currently is thus extending the time it takes for a geothermal powered world to release the same amount of carbon dioxide as a fossil fuel powered one exponentially meaning it could take several centuries if not several thousands of years for a geothermal powered world to produce the same amount of carbon dioxide as a fossil fuel powerered world in one year.If perfected then the ecological impact of geothermal could be reduced to zero meaning a geothermally powered world could never release any carbon dioxide,mercury and water vapour into the atmosphere.Otherwise if successful with intensive research when combined with SNOX filters and other technologies and techniques it could reduce the amount of water vapour,carbon dioxide,sulphur and nitrogen dioxide released into the atmosphere to literally zero thus eliminating all environmental effects of geothermal.Intensive research will be conducted by Pan,Steropes etc into preventing the release of all carbon dioxide,water vapour,sulphur dioxide,mercury etc from geothermal power plants to literally zero.These reasons show that in terms of environmental impact geothermal has the lowest impact on the planet yet still provide higher outputs than coal,oil,gas,nuclear,solar power etc thus trumping them in every way imaginable in construction and management.Geothermal power is in truth the only baseload form of energy out there,since fuels can’t be called true base load since they diminish and since solar and wind are variable according to time and conditions,the only truly steady 24/7,365 day absolutely reliable all day every day form of energy we have out there is geothermal without any machinery to go in and out adding more fuels.Geothermal power since it requires no fuel;it is therefore immune to fuel cost and price fluctuations through scarcity of physical fuels and also economics and even artificial hikes created by embargoes,wars and even greed thus making the energy from it completely free as the convectional currents of heat from the mantle are constant indefinitely.To increase output extra turbines and piping can be added by automation.As a result of all of this and the fact that there is at least 4,000 years of energy from this source it should consist of at least 70% of the worlds energy supply.Research can be done as to whether graphenes ability to absorb and conduct heat can be used as piping covered in rubber or similar thick carbon composites in home geothermal systems with it being used instead of metals in home geothermal heating systems due to its excellent thermoconductivity and the fact that it and graphene ink heaters can replace traditional heaters when installed into the walls and flooring which are easier to control and save up to 70% energy.This could also be applied to power stations.A permanent layer of liquid glass over a layer graphene paint and other forms of insulation can be sprayed on both the internal and external piping of these systems in order to prevent corrosion over the millennia they are running.It would also prevent the liquid from sticking to them keeping it in a continuous cycle.The graphenes heat tolerance will allow it to survive the immense heat and pressure of the mantle.Thermoelectric materials built into the piping can extract even more energy from the heat from the mantle with this even applying to home systems and turn it directly into electrical energy alongside the energy produced by steam thus increasing the amount of electricity generated by each power plant exponentially.Graphene would have to be integrated into the matrix of the thermoelectric materials themselves in thick layers and not just the pipes to make them survive the immense heat and pressure of the lower mantle as well as even outer and inner core to extract more energy with its high thermoconductivity also absorbing more heat from the mantle as well as even outer and inner core and its high electroconductivity transferring more electricity much quicker.Other nanomaterials of the same structure that have a high melting point,high tensile and compressive strength that also have a high thermoconductivity and electroconductivity will be added into the matrix.Having the pipes composed of graphene and carbon composities with a melting point 3,652 – 4,626.85 degrees celcius will save on the need for mining for Copper with if possible them composed of high performance thermoplastics that can have a melting point of at least 3,593 – 4,010 degrees celcius infused with graphene to go deeper and survive high temperatures with the lower mantle roughly 3,700 degrees celcius.Carbyne which has a compressive strength of at least 270GPa and other nanomaterials may have to be integrated into the structure to survive the lower mantle which is 136GPa compared to graphenes which is 130GPa but its compressive strength of 361GPa may aid it.Having the pipes go to the lowest part of the mantle roughly 2,890km will ensure more heat energy can be captured with even more captured if it can reach the outer and inner cores.Other nanomaterials with the same structure as graphene,graphyne and carbyne and those composed of two or more elements like Indium selenide will be researched between 2021-2029 to see if they can survive the depth,pressure and heat of the lower mantle as well as even outer and inner core and as stated have the same or higher electroconductivity and thermoconductivity with the piping being a mixture high performance thermo-plastics and graphene,carbyne and many of other nanomaterials.Research will be done into thermoelectric materials that are effective at extracting the most heat energy form the mantle etc during this period.This graphene would also prevent ruptures in the case of earthquakes and also allow potentially for more energy to be harvested from the lower mantle by extracting more heat energy with its high thermoconductivity also extracting more heat from the mantle as well as even outer and inner core even negating them to go too deep alongside liquids with lower boiling points with those that go deeper possibly gaining more energy from the Earths mantle.Thus geothermal power plants onland,in underground and underwater communities will use graphene infused pipes or those that are composed of nothing but graphene composites that will gain energy from steam generation using water in a closed circuit double loop systems never leaves the pipes with the pipes also covered in a mixture of both graphene and thermoelectric materials that generate electricity directly from the heat of the mantle and outer and inner core of the Earth that combined can exponentially increase the power output of each geothermal plant.New pipes with better nanomaterials and thermoelectric materials will be laid down and the old ones removed.They would also have graphene introduced into the matrix of piping used in plants near earthquake prone zones in order to prevent damage due to its elasticity with it also allowing the piping to withstand temperatures of up to 3,652 – 4,626.85 degrees celcius allowing them to go as far as the lower levels of the mantle with carbyne integrated into its matrix to survive higher pressures or 270 gigapascals compared to graphenes 130.The same graphene infused foamcrete shielding used in hydraulic fracturing to dig below the groundwater should be used on piping to protect groundwater and it in place of underground communities.In time advancements may allow it to go to the outer and inner core to extract more heat using nanomaterials the same structure as graphene and carbyne since the the temperature of the inner core is roughly 5,430 degrees celcius and its pressure 330 meaning alloys of new nanomaterials of the same structure may be required.Graphenes compressive strength of 361GPa may aid this but new nanomaterials from all 94 elements of the same structure may be required.Thus the use of thermoelectric materials and graphene etc in the structure of piping will allow heat from the lower mantle and inner core to be turned into electricity fed into the grid alongside that gained from water and other liquids in the looped system turning turbines to generate electricity will be used in all geothermal power plants thus exponentially increasing energy output.Research into more efficient thermoelectric materials for pipes will start as early as 2029 with older pipes covered in these in homes,buildings and power plants done by automated.Improvements in geothermal technology to achieve this will be done by automation renovating the plant by adding new turbines and piping and removing the old ones or building a new one nearby and then converting the old one into homes or dismantling them with the AI,receptionist and statue etc transferred to the new plant.Newer pipes that can go deeper to harvest more heat energy would be first added to a power plant and the old pipes removed and then replaced by those that go deeper as well to extract more heat energy to be turned into electrical energy.AI and automation will manage all renovations.Steropes and power plant AIs will extrapolate ways to increase the output of each and every power plant exponentionally to increase yields and globally increasing its lifespan to 217,000,000 years or even beyond towards several billion years by going deeper into mantle and outer and inner core.Thus all geothermal power plants will have all piping covered in thermoelectric materials and graphene to allow it go deep into the crust,mantle and even the outer and inner core thus allowing it to convert the immense heat of the mantle,outer and inner core into vast amounts of electrical energy with the deeper they go increasing the the amount of heat into electricity with them also if possible forming loops within the mantle and inner and outer core to increase surface area with this done to exponentionally increase the amount of electricity that each geothermal power plant produces thus extending its lifespan for each town,city,village,state,country,continent and even globally if adopted globally.Research will be done it better thermoelectric materials and nanomaterials to allow them to survive the immense heat and pressure of Earths interior with older pipes replaced by newer ones overtime.
Home geothermal systems:
House heating geothermal systems can be done by utilizing underground geothermal heating and cooling systems under ones house and can maintain a tolerable temperatures year round.A much more common use of the lower energy available up higher is geothermal heating for the home or etc.Homes can incorporate their own looped circuits under their house to heat homes during the autumn and winter months while cooling them in spring and summer alleviating strains on the national grid of electricity coming from a geothermal plant.They can also be placed under gardens,drive ways,stone walkways and pathways surrounding ones home and also under streets,plazas and public walkways in cities and large towns thus preventing ice from forming under them during winter and cold snaps preventing injury and damage to garden plants prone to frost damage.They can also be used to dry wood and peat used for fires grown at home and also dry fruits and even clothing negating the need for tumble dryers in urban areas with the piping having thermoelectric materials in their structure to generate electricity fed into the home directly or stored in batteries 24/7,365 days a year.Excess heat can be used to directly heat personal hot springs both indoor and outdoor in private and communal homes,greenhouses etc as well as indoor and outdoor pools with these systems alleviating strains on the grid with these ideally being double closed circuit loop.Versions to heat water can be integrated into homes or these systems.They can be integrated into new and existing communal homes into floors in suites going as high as possible with graphene integrated into the piping increasing the distance that heat can travel upwards and also amount of heat absorbed due to its thermoconductivity with them heating both indoor and outdoor pools and hot springs.In existing apartment blocks that have air conditioners lined up on one the side of the building that contribute to the urban heat island effect can once this is installed have the old air conditioners removed and replaced with windows and thus cool compact cities such as in Singapore.These can also heat plants during the winter in greenhouses and also in soil in the garden to protect them from frost provided the plants are modified via CRISPR to tolerate high temperatures and also repair roots etc with the pipes going underneath soil.Those heating soil plants would ideally be underneath them a significant depth and would heat the plants roots and also all part of them enough to prevent frost forming with them also underneath pavements and steps by homes and public buildings and even wooden walkways including those raised above the ground by steps and the streets outside residential areas made from major shopping streets that have public walking roads to prevent them becoming slippy.Community farms would also utilise this.Roadways leading into homes and estates could house these as well as public squares and streets in areas that were once commercial streets renovated into major residential areas to prevent them becoming a hazard during winter by melting any frost and snow.Runways in airports and also areas by public buildings such as hospitals,public amenities and universities,restaurants etc would also have the steps and main areas by the entrance and carpark have underground geothermal pipes to make them frost free during the winter.All of these buildings would have geothermal heating added to them to also heat and cool the interior.Vertical farms would use this heating on all floors to reduce energy costs and grow plants and bacteria at ideal temperature ranges with the plants engineered to grow in cooler and warmer conditions during all seasons.Fish farms and recirculating aquaculture systems could also use these especially home systems and also those in community and vertical farms.Sewage treatment plants,water treatment plants and also other vital infrastructure would use this to grow algae and also kill off pathogenic bacteria with it used to grow bacteria in vertical farms and also factories with again these engineered to grow in cooler and hotter ranges with forced evolution used to increase their temperature ranges.Having all buildings worldwide use geothermal heating would drastically reduce energy costs for heating and air conditioning worldwide.The pipes could go to higher floors and heat both the floors and rooms in higher floors with this even applied to existing homes including communal homes during renovations.These would heat the floor and rooms during winter and cool them during summer cutting down on heating and cooling costs and as stated can be applied not just to new buildings but existing ones through modifications with them even through these going to higher floors to heat and cool the floor and room all year round with specialists and time both robots and biosynths applying them since both floors and walls would undergo renovations as well ie new paint,new flooring anyways with them adjusted to avoid wiring etc with this applied to new and existing communal homes including those derived from offices and supermarkets.The pipes composed of graphene could also due to its high thermoconductivity,strength and melting point could allow for them to go deeper and gain more heat for areas that suffer severe blizzards,winters frequent cold snaps and also as a result allow for them to go deeper and extract more heat and allow this heat to be transported higher for communal homes.
Thermoelectric materials built into theses pipes as part of home systems could generate electricity that one could directly power the building,power batteries and compliment solar panels,VAWTs and it also powering air condition,heating and also water heating thus making one able to power,cool and heat their own building outside of power plants.This is due to these thermoelectric materials ability to convert heat directly into electricity with research done into the best ones and old pipes replaced with those with better materials overtime.Graphene would have to be integrated into the matrix of the thermoelectric materials themselves in thick layers and not just the pipes to make them survive the immense heat and pressure of the upper and lower mantle as well as outer core and even inner core to extract more energy with its high thermoconductivity also absorbing more heat from the mantle as well as even outer and inner core,thus generating more electricity and its high electroconductivity transferring more electricity much quicker.Other nanomaterials of the same structure that have a high melting point that also have a high thermoconductivity and electroconductivity will be added into the matrix to improve the yields of electricity.Having the pipes composed of graphene and carbon composites alongside these thermoelectric materials with a melting point 3,652 – 4,626.85 degrees celcius will save on the need for mining for Copper with if possible them composed of high performance thermoplastics that can have a melting point of at least 3,593 – 4,010 degrees celcius infused with graphene to go deeper and survive high temperatures with the lower mantle roughly 3,700 degrees celcius.Graphenes tensile strength is roughly 130GPa and compressive strength of roughly 270GPa allowing it to survive the immense pressure.Carbyne which has a compressive strength of at least 270GPa and other nanomaterials may have to be integrated into the structure to survive the lower mantle which is 136GPa compared to graphenes which is 130GPa but its compressive strength of 361GPa may aid it.Research will be made into other nanomaterials with better electronductivity and higher melting points and compressive and tensile strengthens.Having the pipes go to the lowest part of the mantle roughly 2,890km will ensure more heat energy can be captured with even more captured if they can reach the outer and inner core.The same graphene infused foamcrete shielding used in hydraulic fracturing to dig below the groundwater should be used on piping to protect groundwater and it in place of underground communities.The location of pipes will be logged in Bruaron to allow future infrastructure projects to be built around them.Other nanomaterials with the same structure as graphene,graphyne and carbyne and those composed of two or more elements like Indium selenide will be researched between 2021-2029 to see if they can survive the depth,pressure and heat of the lower mantle as well as even outer and inner core and as stated have the same or higher electroconductivity and thermoconductivity with the piping being a mixture high performance thermo-plastics and graphene,carbyne and many of other nanomaterials.Research will be done into newer thermoelectric materials overtime that are effective at extracting the most heat energy form the mantle etc during this period and if perfected could generate as much as 90% or all of a buildings electricity,alleviating strains on the grid especially when combined with wall batteries in basements by itself or combined with solar panels,solar thermal pipes and air conditioning,geothermal air conditioning and heating and VAWTs alleviating strains on the grid with the deeper they go into the mantle generating more energy with excess shared with other buildings on local to global levels via Brontes.Old pipes can be replaced by newer ones made of better thermoelectric materials and nanomaterials by having the new ones laid down and old ones extracted.New pipes with better nanomaterials and thermoelectric materials will be laid down and the old ones removed.Larger,taller,more energy intensive buildings can have them go deeper or nearer to the mantle as well as outer and inner cores to extract more energy and also more heating and air conditioning.Excess energy will be fed into batteries and also the grid including the global grid via Brontes.Unlike solar panels and VAWTs these thermoelectric material covered geothermal pipes could power homes with vast amounts electricity 24/7,365 days a year anywhere in the world as thermoelectric materials will convert heat from the mantle or lower parts of the crust directly into vast amounts of electrical energy with the deeper they go extracting more energy for larger more energy intensive buildings both to heat and cool the building but also to extract more energy converted directly into electricity fed directly into the building they are connected to with zero carbon dioxide emissions thus making homeowners completely independent from the grid and fossil fuels indefinitely anywhere in the world or at least alleviate strains on the grid.Excess energy produced at off peak and on peak times could charge wall batteries that then power the building at peak times further alleviating strains on the grid and the pipes themselves with other excess energy produced fed into the grid managed by Brontes powering other homes,battery packs and buildings on local to global scales.It can be combined with solar panels,trigeneration micro-gas turbines,VAWTs and batteries powered by them to reduce reliance on the grid by as much as 90-95% especially for energy intensive buildings with isolated buildings powered by it completely.These will power homes during off peak or peak times depending on the time of day,month,year as determined by Home AI and Steropes to be the most efficient and that which alleviates the most strain off the grid as determined by studies of energy use over days,months,years etc.Furthermore in all cases it can be combined with solar panels on roofs that provide electricity,solar thermal power that provides heating/air conditioning and heats water,VAWTs,micro-gas turbines that provide electricity/heating/air conditioning that power one or more buildings and biosynth batteries that charge one or more buildings during off peak times and power them during peak times to reduce strains on the grid such as geothermal,fossil fuels,nuclear power,wave power by as much as 50-90% thus extending the lifespan and number of homes that these power types can power an town,village,city,country or even the world exponentionally if utilised by all homes in an area or the world.During off peak times of electricity use for a building when electricity is not being used or is at its lowest it will alongside micro-gas turbines etc will charge biosynth wall batteries that will then during peak times when electrical use is at its highest the thermoelectric material covered geothermal pipes,VAWTs,micro-gas turbines etc and batteries will power the home and building with the home and building AI allocating the amount of electricity coming from the batteries and thermoelectric material covered pipes,trigeneration systems through micro-gas turbines etc and any that needs to come from the grid with the batteries then charged again at off peak times and so on day in day out 24/7,365 days a year with this allowing as much as 50-90% or even 95% of a home or buildings energy to come from a combination of both batteries and thermoelectric material covered pipes etc thus alleviating the strain each home and building has in the grid with this extending the lifespan of geothermal,fossil fuels,wave and nuclear exponentially across each village,town,city,county,state,country,continent and the entire world if adopted by all homes and public buildings worldwideThus it will replace solar panels as the main source of self sufficient energy in terms of electricity,heating and air conditioning for homes and key energy intensive buildings such as hospitals,airports both existing and new since it can work 24/7 anywhere in the world and harvests far more energy the deeper one goes with it installed in buildings all around the world including existing ones to this to alleviate strains on the grid,allow one to use a large amount of energy intensive electronics,ensure electricity during blackouts and also increase the lifespan of geothermal power plants.This should be adopted by all homes whether private and communal and public buildings such as hospitals,sewage treatment plants etc that are key to the functioning of a city and village to ensure they can function and have a continuous supply of electricity 24/7 during blackouts caused by natural disasters(them being mandatory in areas prone to these for this reason)and surprise faults and to alleviate strains on the geothermal grid thus extending its lifespan and would single handily render solar panels and fossil fuels obsolete by 2029 since the energy produced would be carbon dioxide free and supply a building with its own supply of energy at zero cost to the consumer rendering concepts of electricity bills obsolete.Research will done into these thermoelectric materials that will convert heat directly into electricity with older pipes replaced with better models.Even if electrical companies were to still exist without Steropes seizing control of them it would provide free energy since the piping would directly power ones homes 24/7 and just ones building.Obsolete and abandoned buildings of all types will be fitted with these during episodes of Restoration Nation.Excess energy would via Brontes charge both other homes and community packs etc in the area or halfway across the world especially those in areas where geothermal is too dangerous when they are using less energy and at night time.It could also be directed towards biosynth wifi.Thus this would act as air conditioning during the summer,heaters during winter and all year long would power the home constantly with electricity and also charge batteries immune to price fluctuations and thus completely free both in terms of cost and carbon dioxide emissions.It can also be used to heat water for taps,showers etc and also hot springs added as well as indoor and outdoor pools both existing and new alongside solar thermal pipes with solar air conditioning and thermal power alleviating strains on the grid even further.Thus all buildings of all types both new and existing such as private and communal homes,hospitals,airports,factories etc will become self sufficient from the grid in terms of electricity generated by pipes covered in thermoelectric materials and air conditioning and heating through normal geothermal pipes added to them.This would be due to this technology that can provide free heating,air conditioning,water heating and electricity etc from it with zero carbon dioxide emissions since no gas is created via heating water in conventional power plants and that is free in terms of cost due to it generating electricity,heating and air conditioning solely for the building 24/7,365 days a year rather than a power plant that would have to power entire communities with no interruption and lack of price fluctuations with them using batteries in a rotary system alongside VAWTS,solar panels etc to alleviate strains on the grid and also if possible be fully self sufficient.Furthermore the convectional currents of the mantle are continuous thus meaning the electricity and air conditioning etc will be free due to it working 24/7 anywhere in the world and will last for millions of years.Newly built buildings will be fitted with this alongside existing homes both private and communal undergoing renovations and refurbishments as well as those derived from obsolete and abandoned ones as part of Restoration Nation with them also adding fungi insulation and fittings to showers etc that add energy and water efficiency measures,side,underground and roof extensions to house amenities and even bedrooms for tourists.New and existing sewage and water treatment plants as well as hospitals and later detailed buildings around the world will also have these added.Power plants will use these to power coolant systems,creation of synthetic coal,methane hydrates,reprocessing centres etc without draining energy from the grid and excess fed into the grid.There will be two options either using one set of pipes at different depths of the crust using graphene infused metal or high performance thermoplastics plastic also covered in thermoelectric materials or two sets one composed of graphene infused plastic/metal for air conditioning and heating at a low depth and another composed of graphene and thermoelectricinfused metal or high performance thermoplastics that goes deeper into the upper or lower mantle.Graphenes high thermoconductivity will enable them to absorb more heat at any depth of the crust and mantle for both those used for heating and air conditioning and also electricity generation.AI namely the Home AI and Steropes or even contractors will determine the amount of tubing needed,what it is composed of,how many sets and how deep the both need to go and which option for each building to ensure the maximum amount of heat,air conditioning and electricity can be generated for each building with it carried out at first by paid contractors and then by AI,robots and biosynths with new piping etc laid down and old ones removed over time to meet the needs of extensions etc.By 2029 automation and AI will be able to do this application to all new and existing homes with by 2045 biosynths doing it.All buildings that utilise geothermal heating worldwide will utilise this form of electricity generation with new and existing buildings of all type such as private and communal homes,airports,vertical farms,factories,sewage and water treatment plants etc done through renovations.All existing private homes and hotels as well as communal and private homes derived from supermarkets,offices,skyscrapers and also other obsolete buildings and all types of abandoned buildings will have these fitted during renovations charted in Restoration Nation with vertical farms that are built,airports,new factories and also all sewage and water treatment plants both existing and new will be fitted with these during renovations.Private homes and communal ones in the suburbs and also rural areas will be easiest to do with human workers with in time those tightly packed in urban areas and skyscrapers being done via automation and robotics by 2029-2045.These would ideally be installed at the same time that one is making renovations in homes such as underground extensions with them placed in a way to allow future extensions to occur with them ideally going sideways to the far sides of the garden on the left or right to the very borders of ones garden and then going deep into the mantle with them even going underneath the driveway or walkways that they will heat in winter.Their location will be logged in the Home AI and Brauron so as to have their location known for further extensions and even for the creation of underground communities and future sewage and other pipes that serve the area with underground communities built around the pipes with the pipes even in between rooms and public areas in them covered with piping composed of graphene to prevent ruptures and even when covered in insulation extracting heat and electricity etc.If possible the piping would not just be designed to provide electricity but also air conditioning and heating with a single pipe going underneath the building and built into foundation pillars for underground extensions(or any underground communities)that can tolerate and disperse heat and electricity and it going straight down and once it reaches a depth where it is hot,near or near the mantle it will form spirals and loops to increase surface area and increase the amount of heat to electricity generation determined by AI avoiding extensions(existing or new)meaning it could be added after or before underground extensions and communities are built and composed of self healing concrete mixed with graphene fibres to be indestructible and the pillar and pipes location logged into Brauron and underground communities and extensions built around them.The depth they go will be decided by the height of the building,the estimated energy use of it and also climate of the area so as to ensure that all floors are heated in the winter and cooled in the summer and charged all day long.This will be of note to homes in the wilderness living off the grid to negate the need for pylons including underground ones and homes in areas too dangerous for geothermal or are prone to tornadoes,blizzards,hurricanes and blackouts as will provide continuous electricity in these situations during and after natural disasters to prevent blackouts with key energy intensive buildings like factories,hospitals,sewage treatment plants,desalinisation plants having this with this alleviating strains on the grid alongside solar panels an VAWTs etc on roofs to charge batteries on walls and to ensure they continue to function 24/7.These buildings will be fitted with them to ensure they can function 24/7 with all private and communal homes both existing and those derived from abandoned and obsolete buildings fitted with them.Closely knit buildings and those suburbs can have the pipes for one or more homes can have these added on the outskirts underneath nearby grassy knolls,parks,woodlands and wilderness to then hold large amounts of pipes for one or multiple homes with those in urbanised areas have them under streets,roads,alleys pavements decided by contractors and in time AI.If possible a single pipe could be used to power as much as two,fifty to a hundred homes and buildings depending on the depth they go and the amount of energy used with this of note to the suburbs and tightly packed estates in cities with it providing electricity,heating and air conditioning.The deeper the pipes go the more energy they generate and more homes and buildings they can power.Large parks in densely populated cities for example Central Park in New York could house areas for these pipes to go into them underground and then go deep underneath them into the crust and mantle that could supply the heating,air conditioning and electricity for dozens or hundreds of surrounding communal homes derived from banks,skyscrapers and existing apartment blocks with multiple pipes going to each set of buildings and each pipe powering dozens of buildings at once due to the immense energy gained from them with alleys also used to house the pipes allowing underground extensions to be made to each existing building with again one pipe powering multiple buildings.Thus large amounts dozens,potentially hundreds or even thousands of large tightly close knit buildings in densely populated cities around the world including London,Paris,Hong Kong,Tokyo will have instead of each building powered by a single pipe each they will have a single pipe power dozens if not hundreds of buildings by going deep into the mantle and outer and inner core forming loops to increase surface area and thus the amount of energy in the form of heating,air conditioning and electricity that can be dispersed evenly amongst the buildings with this use of a single pipe powering multiple building will prevent them being laid down for every buildings thus freeing up space to allow both underground extensions and underground communities and even Oceanus systems to be built underneath with them also logged into Brauron that can have pillars surrounding them.Using a single pipe to power hundreds or thousands of buildings will negate the need for every single building having their own separate pipe thus allowing for underground communities and Oceanus to be built underneath densely populated cities and would save time,labour and other resources in having each building have one pipe.This can be replicated in all major cities worldwide with it catering primarily to densely populated cities and towns to allow underground communities and Oceanus systems to be present.Thus in densely populated cities across the world rather than have pipes underneath each home that would be costly in terms of resources and space needed for Oceanus and underground communities ideally every few dozen,hundred or even thousand tall buildings converted into communal homes and existing apartment blocks and hotels would be powered by a single pipe that would go into the deep layers of the mantle and even outer and inner core that forms loops to increase surface to allow them to provide them all or at least most of them with electricity,air conditioning and heating dispersed evenly limiting the number of pipes present to power the entire city continuously alleviating strains on the grid with AI namely Steropes etc deciding where the pipes will go,how many pipes will exist and which buildings will be powered by them and how deep they go to increase the amount of buildings they can power with it analysing the amount of electricity used by each building and all buildings in the city and town etc on a daily to yearly basis including existing recorded data and then pre deciding with Helios,Tyche and Oceanus where the underground Oceanus will go.Even large and small towns and villages around the world will utilise this system.AI will determine how many pipes each city will need to power them enough to reduce strains on the grid by at least 70-90% with the electricity,heating etc dispersed evenly amongst all buildings with their location decided by AI to prevent it interfering with Oceanus and underground communities with AI carrying out all steps to their installation.Suburbs of all cities will be powered collectively by a single pipe that powers all homes present there again decided by AI.Entire rural towns,villages and communities etc including ghost towns will utilise this system of a single pipe powering dozens of homes to become self sufficient with abandoned buildings in the middle of nowhere renovated through Restoration Nation will utilise this to be self sufficient before or instead of being connected to the grid.In all cases in cities,towns and suburbs etc all excess energy will be fed into the grid and power battery packs prior to natural disasters and also wall batteries in each home both private and communal.The use of one pipe powering one building will be primarily be done in the case of homes in rural isolated areas that are surrounded by fields as well as wilderness and those off the grid including mansions etc with in all cases excess energy fed into the local,national and global grid managed by Brontes to then power other nearby and faraway homes further alleviating strains on the grid.AI will decide how many homes will be powered by each pipe.In all cases excess energy will be fed into the grid and nearby homes and fed into batteries.It covered in graphene etc could due its high heat and pressure resistence reach as low as the lower mantle and upper outer and inner core to generate immense amount of energy by converting this immense heat directly into immense amounts of energy allowing for more buildings to be powered from it.New towns set up in new colonies will utilise this system of single pipes powering them all with a single pipe powering an individual building only in the case of those that are in rural areas that have spacious enough areas between and their neighbours and isolated buildings with closely knit buildings having a single pipe power as many of them.Put simply homes in extremely isolated areas especially abandoned and obsolete ones converted into private and communal homes will be powered by a single pipe and excess energy etc fed into the grid with new buildings added to the surrounding areas connected to the pipe.AI will extrapolate how deep the pipes will go based on the size of the building,how much energy it and they uses,how many buildings are powered with in all cases excess energy fed into the grid.Communal homes,palaces and mansions would also use this technology to alleviate strains on the grid.Large important buildings worldwide such as the complex for the wire,Tarturas and Hades prisons as well as the entire Oceanus system,community battery packs,manufacturing hubs,Phaeton charging stations,systems to bring desalinated water inland to convert deserts into grasslands and jungles and serve inland towns and villages and those that power nearby cities etc,manufacturing hubs and important buildings such as hospitals,sewage and water treatment plants,vertical/meadow/community farms,airports,seaports,servers for internet sites etc would have their own miniaturised geothermal systems that uses this type of direct electricity generation to generate electricity 24/7 and provide air conditioning and heating etc without fear of losing energy in a blackout and also alleviate strains on the grid with the energy fed directly into it with them also using heating and air conditioning and heating water etc using this.By 2029 all work will be automated by AI namely Steropes and Daedalus who will decide where the piping will go in the case of all types of buildings including existing ones.By providing the vast majority of energy they will alleviate a home or buildings strains on the grid with the Home and building AI onboard computers charged by this at all times including in blackouts allowing them to allocate the energy produced by these to the most energy intensive appliances and machinery with them allocating energy from the grid to the least energy intensive machinery and appliances.AI will manage the allocation of energy from this and that taken in from the grid to ensure it is done in the most efficient values.At night time and when electricity is not being used they will charge batteries in homes with this done in other buildings at peak times at any time with this momentarily switching and excess will be using Brontes sent to charge nearby homes,their batteries and even other buildings across the country and world.The charged batteries could charge most appliance at peak times managed by the building AI and would also power extra appliances or uses of energy especially in large homes,factories etc.One through direct interaction with the home AI and menu on the app could arrange to have the vast amounts of energy directed to biosynth wifi routers that would provide exponentially fast wifi without internet cables thus making homes self sufficient with regards to wifi with this energy from the pipes also combined with the grid to further increase the wifis power as detailed earlier on and could be combined with that coming from switchboxes and exponentially faster wifi using graphene and other nanotubes as detailed earlier on again to make it even more powerful.This would be of note to internet dead zones and also islands and places with poor wifi as well as underwater and underground communities.One could also decided which appliances get the majority of the electricity when used using the home AI app.One could also decide where the energy is directed to ie which appliances are charged or which rooms and how much charges wifi at anytime with Home AI deciding where it is allocated during certain times of the day and how much excess is fed into batteries and the grid via Brontes.During blackouts they will direct the energy from the pipes to key systems such as the onboard computer of the building AI,surgery machines,CPR machines in use,algea ponds,televisions,kitchens,fridges and food growing areas alongside energy from batteries.These pipes covered in the thermoelectricwould feed the house 24/7,365 days a year for all electronics and devices as they are charged or used,recharge wall batteries and if any excess is produced fed into the grid,nearby homes that either use them or dont use them and also community battery packs with it via the global grid system Brontes charging homes,battery packs across the world with Brontes,Hestia,Steropes and Home AIs controlling this.This would be done to power some homes completely from the grid if done alongside batteries,solar panels,VAWTs etc as detailed later on and would be done in others to alleviate strains on the grid as unlike geothermal power plants they would produce no carbon dioxide at all and would power the home in its busiest times and do so for the most energy intensive electronics and key systems all the time with the grid used to power the home for those outside of what is charged by these pipes in energy intensive buildings or times of the day with them again powering the home during blackouts meaning important and energy intensive buildings like hospitals,communal homes,sewage treatment plants etc will have these to alleviate strains on the grid and be powered during blackouts with the pipes powering air conditioning and heating by themselves means the energy from the pipes will not have to charge these.If all buildings in an area use the three capabilities ie heating,cooling and electricity generation from these pipes then it will alleviate strains on geothermal power plants allowing more homes to be powered by them,ensure electricity during blackouts,increasing its lifespan beyond 4,000-26,000 years and also reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as letting the power plants power energy intensive technologies abd projects and using Brontes charge other buildings across the world that rely on fossil fuels,wave etc.Entire communities especially rural ones can use this electricity generation and also heating and cooling,batteries and also solar panels,VAWTs that when used by all homes and buildings alongside energy saving technologies will negate the need for powerplants at all.Buildings by themselves especially abandoned ones And those off the grid could be powered completely by these and batteries when renovated to negate the need for adding wiring to the grid.Islands especially remote ones would have buildings fitted with these and be by the coast or underground with the piping going underground.Underwater and underground communities would use this system of geothermal pipes covered in thermoelectric materials to allow for electricity to be generated in large amounts without the need for creating gas and piping to the surface with the pipes cooling and heating the entire underground and underwater communities.In the case of underground communities they would only have to go down a small bit and form a loop in the mantle since it gets hotter there with them also having tunnels and communities built in between piping with their location logged in Brauron so the piping can be given more insulation and protection from creating deeper communities and also allow them to be widely separated enough for walking and driving in between them and homes etc built in between them or them going through the centre of rooms etc managed by AI.In both underwater and underground communities they would form a large network in the flooring of buildings and streets etc rather than a power plant to act as heaters and air conditioning and either power each area and home directly via wiring connected to them or they would power the entire or large portions by being connected to a power plant using this technology that connects to the entire area of these communities allowing vast amounts of electricity to be created without carbon dioxide emissions or gas created unlike underwater geothermal power plants that may have to be directed to the surface or even sequestered and also contaminate the communities.Thus in underwater and underground communities geothermal power plants that consist of large loops of these pipes going deep into the mantle that contain no water thus when connected to an underwater and underground power plant they will generate large amounts of electricity with zero gases and as in both of these communities it would be difficult to direct the gas and it would require polluting the ocean,have pipes lead kilometres into the surface and also require measures such as carbon sequestration onsite of them.Wave pistons,tidal power plants that power coastal towns,cities,underground communities and islands would have pipes connected to them that goes deep into the mantle that increases their energy output exponentially.Entire underwater and underground communities can be powered by this placed at key points negating the need for traditional geothermal power and them connected to wave pistons at the surface.Fusion power plants would use this to first charge initial reactions and keep them running if they fizzle out but also to charge reactions to turn Lithium into Tritium and Helium-4 and if possible then Helium-3 with community battery battery packs also using this to charge them alongside solar and VAWTs.Solar thermal power plants including floating ones would use this to first charge initial reactions and fission power plants would use this to charge coolant and containment procedures 24/7 with excess sent to the grid.In areas that are powered by oil,gas,coal and nuclear fission it will alleviate strains on the grid.Phaeton stations can use this to charge wireless chargers for electric vehicles and processes to create hydrogen etc.Airports and seaports will use it charge not just the buildings but also charge electric cruise ships,aeroplanes etc with Oceanus having pipes at each station that combined charge the entire system.Oil rigs turned into homes will also utilise this form of electricity generation alongside VAWTs and wave power with it also producing biosynth wifi in these area.Community energy packs of batteries can use this charge them in areas prone to natural disasters and alleviate strains on the grid.Manufacturing hubs would have either each factory charged using this or even have the entire hub either directly or through charged batteries with the pipes also providing heating to photobioreactors that grow bacteria with sewage and water treatment plants also charged by these with the pipes also heating the algea past the threshold of pathogens of which algae with thermophillic DNA to kill off pathogens.In all cases excess energy can be fed into the grid.Conventional geothermal power plants would use the use of thermoelectric materials in pipes to generate more electricity for the grid alongside steam turning turbines will be used to generate large amounts of electricity to power these with the pipes going as deep as possible to meet their needs to ensure they receive all the energy they need 24/7,365 days a year with the grid acting as a backup.Power plants on the surface would create as stated more electricity via these materials interwoven into the fabric of pipes that contain water used to create energy via steam to further increase power output of conventional geothermal power plants thus increasing its lifespan and also extra power out that creates no carbon dioxide.Graphene ink heaters can replace traditional heaters when installed into the walls and flooring which are easier to control and save up to 70% energy with it easier to install these graphene ink geothermal heaters in to existing private and communal homes.All of these would be closed circuit double loop systems and would be useable to both new and existing homes both private and communal keeping the home cool in summer and spring and warm in autumn and winter.This is a passive process and is better than air conditioning and heating in both communal and private homes and will alleviate strains on the grid powered by geothermal power plants for this.Older pipes can be replaced newer pipes with better thermoelectric materials with automation able to replace them by 2045.Intensive research will be done into newer more efficient thermoelectric materials.The pipes can be composed of metals that are close circuit double loop and and the pushed into bored holes or they can be composed of thermoplastics,graphene and thermoelectric materials that are flexible like rubber and plastics that can have one end connected to the house and one part connected to a machine that then has the mid part of the pipes goes through a bored hole and is pushed downwards into the deep crust and mantle and part connected to the machine connected to the house to form a loop.If possible a miniature graphene composite boring device with rudder flagellum like protrusions can be attached to these aforementioned flexible pipes and bore down in a directed manner with AI developing ways to push it deep into crust and mantle me and ensure it can stay there and possibly form stable loops to increase surface area.They alongside micro-gas turbines will replace solar as the predominant form of self sustaining energy generation since it works 24/7,harvests vast amounts of energy and can be done anywhere in the world and also negates the need to mining for rare earths and silica that are in competition with other uses.Research into this hypothetical thermoelectric material covered pipe technology will be carried out by AI.It will be done on-site of universities with all first generation geothermal power plants and home systems not using thermoelectric materials but rather just Graphene interwoven into them so as to increase thermoconductivity etc.If thermoelectric materials are a not a viable technology then the research into them will be abandoned completely with the research done into the possibility of developing thermoelectric materials that are inexpensive and can be applied to piping of all power plants and also pipes as part of home systems.Their use in geothermal is pure speculation with the research will be done at universities across the world.The use of thermoelectric materials covering pipes is purely speculative and should be researched as a means to increase electricity generation for each power plant and home systems with research done into those that are pliable and flexible with them in the interior of pipes with Graphene infused in the pipes to increase their heat threshold in the crust and thermoconductivity and electronconductivity.